Eye, Brain, and Vision
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Riggs, Lorrin, 20 right versus left in brain, 15 in visual pathway, 13-15 rivalry, retinal, 38 Rizzolatti, Giacomo, 35 Robinson, David, 79 rod, 2, 7, 12, 26, 36, 47, 48 pigment in, 162 saturation of, 49 vision, 166, 188 rods and cones, 2, 7, 26, 36-37, 38, 40, 46-48, 47, 50, 52, 162-164, 163 differences between, 47, 48 in different species, 46 effects of background light on, 40 hyperpolarization by light of, 47-48 number, in retina, 37 physiology of, 46-49 relative numbers of, variation with retinal position, 36 wavelength sensitivity of, 47 Rushton, William, 172 saccadic eye movements, 79 saturation of rods, 49 scatter, of receptive fields, 128 scheme of wiring for complex cell, 75-76 for double-opponent cells, 188, 189 for explaining directional selectivity, 78 for explaining end stopping, 83, 84 for simple cell, 73, 74 Schiller, Peter, 81 scotoma from damage to visual cortex, 100 unawareness of, 101 selectivity for movement direction, 70, 71, 77, 78 selectivity for orientation all directions represented in the population, 71 in blobs, 186 first evidence for, 68-69 sensitivity of rods, to single photons, 49 shape recognition, problems of, 221 Shatz, Caria, 218 sheath, myelin, 18, 19 signals, graded or passively conducted, 21, 51

 

Blue refers to illustrations.
Red refers to main discussion of a topic.
INDEX  III
   
 

perspective, as cue to depth, 36 photon, of light, 11 photoreceptors, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 9, 11, 11, 12, 12, 41, 41 (see also rods and cones)
pigment in cones, nomenclature, 41 melanin, in retina, 8, 9 physical properties of, 40-41, 43 types of, in receptors, 41 visual, 11, 41 pigments, chemical restoration of, 8 plate aggregation of cells into, 3, 6, 7, 14 structure of visual cortex as, 23 Poggio, Gian, 38 point-to-point maps of cortex, 30 points, corresponding retinal, 36 postsynaptic atrophy, in geniculate, after eye closure, 53 postsynaptic cell, 3, 4, 5 potassium ion, or K+, 4, 4 prenatal development, 50 prestriate cortical areas, 23, 58 presynaptic cell, 3 primary colors, 40, 43, 44 primary visual cortex, 2, 3, 14-22, 14, 23, 24, 24-25, 27-28, 47-49 (see also cortex, primary visual)
purple (color), 43 purple, visual (rod pigment), 41 Ramon y Cajal, Santiago, facing p. 2, 9, 9 Ranvier, node of, 5 Ratliff, Floyd, 20 receptive field, 3, 9-11, 10, 12, 14-15, 17, 18, 25, 31-32 aggregate, 31 of bipolar cells, 12 of blob cells, 47-49 center-surround, 9, 9, 13 complex, in different layers of striate cortex, 25 concept of, 10 distinction from visual fields, 15 and effects of stimulus orientation, 10 and end stopping, 20-21, 20 of horizontal cells, 12 of lateral geniculate cells, 15 off-center, 9 on-center, 9 overlapping of, in neighboring cells, 10, 10
rate of drift of, 31 of retinal ganglion cell, 9-10 scatter of, 31 simple, in different layers of striate cortex, 25 size as function of eccentricity, relation to magnification, 30-32 size increase, from stage to stage in nervous system, 14 size of, in complex cells, 18 size of, in ganglion cells, 10-11 size of, in horizontal cells, 12 size of, in simple cells, 17 size of, relation to visual acuity, 11 size of, in terms of subtended angle, 10 surround, role of horizontal cells in origin of, 12 receptor number in retina, 3 sensory, 2, 3, 6 receptor, membrane, 5 receptors, retinal, pigments in, 41 reflex, 6 regenerative process (impulse), 4, 5 representation, topographic, 14—15, 16, 30, 58 resting state of membrane, 4 retina anatomy and physiology of, 8—13 anterior layer of (retinal ganglion cells), 4, 8, 9 inverted organization of, 8 middle layer of, 4, 8, 9, 12-13 as part of the brain, 8 variation of thickness of layers, 32, 33 retinal ganglion cell, 4, 6, 7, 9, 9-11, 9-10, 12, 13 connections with bipolar cell, 13 receptive field of, 9-10 receptive-field overlap, 9 spontaneous firing of, 9, 9 retinal rivalry, and stereopsis, 38 retinex theory, of Land, 45-46 retraction, postnatal, of geniculo-cortical terminals, in newborns, 56


Index II

near and far cells, and stereopsis, 38, 38 Nelson, Ralph, 13 nerve, optic, 6, 8, 8, 9-10, 14, 15, 16, 24 nerve cell, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6 {see also neuron)
nerve impulse, 4, 4-5, 5 (see also impulse)
nerve signals, graded, or passively conducted, 5 nerve-muscle junction, 6 nervous system, plan of,. 6 neurodevelopment, 50-58, 56 (see also development)
neuron, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6 motor, 6 number in brain, 2 neurotransmitter, 3, 5 newborn animals maturity of visual system in, 53 and neural binocular convergence, 22 Newton, Isaac, 40, 42 Nicholls, John, 6 node of Ranvier, 5 nucleus, lateral geniculate, 3, 3, 6, 14, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 24, 27, 46-47, 51, 51 (see also lateral geniculate body)
nucleus, oculomotor, 7 nystagmus, 19 object recognition, 24, 59-60 occipital lobe, 2, 3, 23, 58 ocular dominance, 22 ocular-dominance columns, 26—28 basis of, in afferent axon branching, 26, 26
development of, 56 function of, 28 physiological evidence for, 26 shape of, 26-27, 27 size of, 26 species differences, 28 ocular-dominance histograms, 22 oculomotor nucleus, 7 off-center cell, 9-10, 12, 13 in geniculate, 46-47, 48, 49 and retinal ganglion cells, 9, 9 shape of, compared with on-center cell, 13
ophthalmoscope (type of retinal stimulator), 9 opponent color processes, 44, 46-47, 46, 46, 48-49, 49 in blobs, 48 opponent pairs, of receptors, 13 optic chiasm results of midline section of, 34, 35, 39 and retino-geniculate projections, 16 optic disc, and blind spot, 8, 15, 24 optic nerve, 6, 8, 8-9, 14, 15, 16, 24 orientation columns clockwise or counterclockwise shifts, 28, 29, 29, 30 contour map of, 29, 29 degrees of shift per millimeter on cortex, 28, 29, 29 deoxyglucose mapping of, 29, 29 evidence for slabs, 29 fractures, 29, 29 mapped by voltage-sensitive dyes, 30 mapping by microelectrodes, 28 relation to ocular-dominance columns, 28, 29 reversal in direction of shift, 28 orientation selectivity, 16, 25 in end-stopped cells, 20 lack of, in blobs, 48 parallax, as cue to depth, 36 parietal lobe, 2, 3 parvocellular layers of lateral geniculate body, 15, 16, 46-47 terminals in cortex, 24 passively conducted signals, 5, 12-13 pathway in nervous system, 3 typical neural, 6 Pearlman, Alan, 48 penetrations of microelectrodes through cortex, 17 Penn, Richard, 11 perception, 21-22, 59 of brightness, as opposed to contrast, 13 effaces, 59 of form, 24 Perry, Hollis, 45

 
 
 
 
 
 
Index II