Eye, Brain, and Vision
Home
Book
Illusions
Biography
Publications
David Hubel's
Home
Book
Illusions
Biography
Publications
HMS
                                                                                    
       
   
 

    in visual fields and visual path, 14,15 .
layers, in lateral geniculate body: eye alter    nation, 15, 16
layers of striate cortex     2 and 3, complex cells in, 25
    4, center-surround fields in, 25
    4C, geniculate axon branching in, 26, 26
    4C, retraction of terminals in newborn,56
    6, shape of receptive fields, 26
    connections, 25, 25-26
    deep (5 and 6), complex cells in, 26
    variations in complexity of, 26
left versus right, in brain, 15
length summation     of complex cells, 20, 26
    of end-stopped cells, 20, 20
Leonardo da Vinci, 36
LeVay, Simon, 27, 27
Levick, William, 18
light     spectral energy distribution of, 40
    and wavelength, 40
    white, 40
light source, relative unimportance of, 13,     45-46, 47-48
Livingstone, Margaret, 47, 47, 48
lobe     frontal, 2
    occipital, 2, 3, 58
    parietal, 2, 3, 58
    temporal, 2, 3, 58
machine, analogy to brain, 60
MacNicholl, Edward, 43
Maffei, Lamberto, 58
magnification, cortical, 28, 31-33
magnocellular layers     of lateral geniculate body, 16, 47
    terminals in cortex, 24
mapping, of visual fields onto visual cor    tex, 24, 58
mapping of cortex, with voltage-sensitive     dyes, 30
Marks, William, 43
matter, grey, 5, 24
matter, white, 5, 24
maturation of visual system, as seen in     newborn monkeys, 53
McCann, John, and color constancy, 45
Meister, Marcus, 58
melanin pigment in eye, functions of, 89
membrane     cell, 3, 4
    postsynaptic, 5
    presynaptic, 5
    resting state of, 4
membrane, channels, 4
membrane potential     depolarization, 4
    hyperpolarization, in photoreceptors, 11
    reversal of, 4, 5
Merzenich, Michael, 57
microelectrode, 3, 14, 25
migraine headaches, 24
mind, 14, 59, 60
Mitchell, Donald, 39
mixing of color, of paints (subtractive) and     of light (additive), 40, 42, 43,     43-44
module, cortical, 32
Mondrian scene, 45-46, 45
mosaic     of columns, in cortex, 26-28, 27,     29-30, 29, 30
    retinal, 11, 41
motorneuron, 5, 6, 7
Mountcastle, Vernon, 28
movement, responses to     in area MT, 59
    by striate cortical cells, 17, 18, 18, 19    20, 20
movement, voluntary, 6, 7, 7
MT, visual area, 59
muscle cell, 6
muscle control, 6
muscles     ciliary, for focusing, 8
    external eye, 7, 7, 8
    forearm, 7, 7
    for making fist, 7, 7
    pupillary, 8
    rectus, external, 7, 7, 8
    rectus, internal, 7, 8
myelin sheath, 5, 5
Myers, Ronald, 34
Nathans, Jeremy, 44
nature versus nurture, in monkey visual     system, 53

Blue refers to illustrations.
Red refers to main discussion of a topic.
INDEX  II
   
 

Galli-Resta, L., 58
ganglion cell, retinal, 4, 6, 7, 9, 9-11,     9-10, 12, 13, 17-18
    (see also retinal ganglion cell)
genealogy of connections, 6
geniculate body, lateral, 3, 6, 7, 14,     14 , 15, 16,24, 24, 27, 46-47, 51
    (see also lateral geniculate body)
Gilbert, Charles, 19
Ginsborg, B. L., 20
glial cell, 2, 5
goldfish     and color constancy, 45
    and double-opponent cells, 47, 48
Golgi, Camillo, 24
Golgi stain, of striate cortex, 3, 3, 4, 16, 24
graded signals, 5, 12
grandmother cell, 59
grey matter, 5, 22
Guillery, Ray, 56-57
gyrus (pi. gyri) of cortex, 23
Hagins, William, 11
hard wiring, 7, 50, 53, 56
Harlow, Harry, 58
Harris, William, 58
head-rotation sense, and opponent pairs, 13
heat versus cold sensation, 13
Hebb, Donald, 55
Hebb synapse, 55
Hem, Alan, 57
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 40-43
hemianopia, homonymous, from damage     to visual pathway, 15
Hendrickson, Anita, 47
Henry, Geoffrey, 20, 21
Hering, Ewald, 43, 44, 47, 48
Hering color theory, 44, 45, 46
hierarchical organization     anatomical support for, 19
    of visual pathway, 3, 15-22
Hill, R. M., 18
Hodgkin, Alan, 4, 4
homonymous hemianopia, from damage to     visual pathway, 15
horizontal cells, 4, 8, 12-13
horopter, in stereopsis, 36
horseradish peroxidase, in tracing anatomi    cal pathways, 26
Horton, Jonathan, 47
Humphrey, Alan, 47
Hurvich, Leo, 44, 45
Huxley, Andrew, 4, 4
hyperpolarization, of visual receptors by     light, 11
impulse     all-or-none quality of, 5
    definition and mechanism of, 4, 4-5,
    maximum rate of, 4, 4, 5
    repetitive train of, 5
    site of initiation of, 5
Ingle, David, 45
inhibition     in color mechanisms, 44
    in retina, 7
    synaptic, mechanism of, 5
inhibitory areas, in simple receptive fields, 17
integration, in nervous system, 4, 5
ions, extracellular and intracellular, 4
Jameson, Dorothea, 44, 45
Judd, Deane, 45
Julesz, Bela, 37, 37
Kaneko, Akimichi, 12
Katz, Bernard, 4
Kolb, Helga, 13
Kuffler, Stephen, 4, 9, 12, 16, 59
Land, Edwin, 45-46
lateral geniculate body, 3, 6, 7, 14, 14,     15 -16, 16, 23, 24, 24, 27, 46-47,     51 , 51, 57
    in cat, 51, 57
    effects of eye closure on anatomy of,     51 , 51, 57
    effects of eye closure on physiology of,     51
    layers of (magnocellular and parvocellu    lar), 15-16, 24, 27, 46-47
    physiological cell types in, 46-47
    projections to cortex from, 24, 24
    responses of cells in, 15, 46-47
    retinal projections to, 16, 27
    topography of, 14, 15, 57, 57
    ventral and dorsal layers (magnocellular     and parvocellular) of, 16, 46-47
laterality     in brain, 15, 35

Index I
Index III
dark rearing, 50
Daw, Nigel, 45, 47, 48
dendrite, 3, 4
deoxyglucose     mapping of ocular dominance columns     with, 28, 29
    mapping of orientation columns with,     29 , 29
    mapping of topography with, 28, 28
depolarization     of nerve, 4-5
    of nerve terminals, leading to transmitter     release, 5
    of sensory receptors, 11
deprivation, visual, 5058
    anatomical consequences of, 55-56
    binocular, 53-54
    broader implications of, 57
    miscellaneous types of, 57
    monocular, 50-54
depth vision, 36
desaturation, of color, 43
De Valois, Russell, 28, 46
development     normal, in ocular-dominance columns,     56, 56
    postnatal, 50-58
    prenatal, 50
diffuse light     ineffectiveness of, in visual cells, 10, 16
    perception by borders, 21
direct and indirect paths in retina, 89,     11, 12, 13
directional preference for movement, 17,     18, 19
disc, optic, and blind spot, 8, 15, 24
disparity, in stereopsis, 36
disparity-tuned cells, and stereopsis, 38
Ditchburn, R. W., 20
divergence     in neuronal connections, 5, 6
    in neuronal pathways, 3
Dobelle, William, 43
dominance, ocular, 22, 25
    (see also ocular-dominance columns)
double vision, as consequence of squint, 54
double-opponent cells, 48, 48
Dowling, John, 12
dyes, voltage-sensitive, and cortical map    ping, 30
Eccles, John, 4
end stopping     in area-18 pale stripes, 59
    and responses to contours, 21
    in simple cells, 20
    schemes to explain, 20, 20
    in striate cortex, 20-21, 20, 25
excitation, synaptic, 5, 7
excitatory areas, in simple receptive fields,     17
extracellular ions, 4
eye, 8-13, 8
    compared to camera, 8
eye closure     in cats and monkeys, 50-54, 51,     55-58
    deterioration of innate connections as     cause of deficit, 52
    effects on cortical physiology, 50-51,     55
    effects on geniculate anatomy, 51, 51
    effects on geniculate physiology, 51
    effects on visual acuity, 52
    extent of recovery following, 52-53,     52
    failure to learn as cause of deficit, 52
    importance of age and, 52, 52
    light versus form deprivation, 51
    producing blindness, 51
eye closure, monocular, effects on cortical     anatomy, 51, 55-56
eye movements     7, 7, 19
    importance in vision, 19, 19
    stabilization of, 19
eye muscles, 7, 7
eyeball, 8
face recognition, 3
Famiglietti, Edward, 13
feedback circuits, 6
Fesenko, Evgeniy, 11
field, receptive, definition of, 3
    (see also receptive field)
fields, visual, 15
Fischer, Burkhart, 38
form perception, 24
fovea, 8, 10, 11
frontal lobe, 2

 
 
 
 
 
 
Next Page
Index I