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commissure, great cerebral, 34-35, 34
    (see also corpus callosum)
completion phenomenon, 24
complex cell, 16-17, 18, 18
    compared to simple cells, 18
    possible wiring for, 18
    responses to contours, 21
    responses to moving lines, 18, 18
complexity, of brain, 2, 59, 60
complexity, of cells, variations in different     layers of area 4, 25
consciousness, 6
cones, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 11
    pigments in, 41
connections     development of, in visual system,     50
    random, 2
    between retinal ganglion cell and bipolar     cell, 13
    total number in brain, 2
contours, light-dark, responses of simple     and complex cells to, 21
convergence     binocular, neural, 22, 22
    influence on receptive-field size, 14
    neural, 5, 6
    relation to receptive-field size, 9
Cooper, G. F., 57
coordinate axes, for color, 48, 49
cornea, 8, 8
corpus callosum, 34-35, 34
    agenesis of, 34
    anatomy of, 34, 35
    early experiments by Myers on, 34
    effects of cutting, 34, 39
    experiments of Whitteridge on, 35, 35
    and information transfer, 35
    and midline representation, 35
    number of axons in, 34
    physiology of, 35
    receptive fields of, 35
    and somatic sensation, 35
    specificity of connections in, 35
    and stereoblindness, 39
    and transfer of information from left to     right hemisphere, 15
corresponding retinal points, 36
cortex, cerebellar, 2
cortex, cerebral, 2, 3
    gyri and suici in, 23
    magnification in, 28, 28, 31-33, 33
    motor, 2
    in newborn monkeys, 53
    occipital, 2
    prestriate, 23
    primary visual (striate, or area 17), 2, 3,     14-22, 23-25, 27-28, 47-49
    total area of, 23
    uniformity of, 24, 25
    visual area 2, or area 18, 3, 23, 38,     58, 59
    visual, anatomy, 2, 14, 23-25, 23, 24, 27-28
    visual, architecture, 2330
    visual, areas, 23, 58, 59
cortex, primary visual (striate, or area 17)
    anatomy of, 2, 14, 14, 23-30, 23-24,     27, 31-33, 33, 47
    deformation of, from sphere, 32-33, 33
    effects of stroke or other damage on, 24
    information processing in, 14-22, 47-49
    layers of, 24, 25
    local connections, 24
    magnification in, 31-33
    modules in, 31-33
    physiology of, 14-22, 47-49
    projections from various layers in, 24, 26
    projections to various layers in, 24, 26
    retinal topography of, 28, 30
    three-dimensional shape when unfolded,     32-33, 33
cortex, somatosensory     columns in, 28
    shape when unfolded, 33
cyclic GMP or cGMP, in photoreceptors, 12
Cynader, Max, 57
da Vinci, Leonardo, 36
Damasio, Antonio, 59
Daniel, P. M-, 31
dark adaptation, 48
dark current, of photoreceptors,11

Blue refers to illustrations.
Red refers to main discussion of a topic.
INDEX  I
   
 

cell     amacrine, 4, 8, 9, 12, 13
    binocular, 26
    bipolar, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11-12, 12, 13
    (see also bipolar cell)
    broad-band, in blobs, 48
    broad-band, in lateral geniculate, 47
    complex, 16-17, 17, 18, 18
    (see also complex cell)
    disparity tuned, in stereopsis,     37-38, 38
    double-opponent, 48, 48, 49
    end-stopped, 20-21, 20, 25, 59
    (see also end stopping)
    glial, 2, 5
    horizontal, 4, 8, 12-13, 12
    (see also horizontal cells)
    1, r-g, and y-b of Svaetichin, 46
    in lateral geniculate, types 1, 2, and 3,     46
    membrane, 3
    nerve, 2, 3, 4, 5
    off-center, 9-10, 12, 13
    off-center, shape, 13
    opponent-color, 46-47, 46, 47-49
    postsynaptic, 3
    presynaptic, 3
    Purkinje, 3
    pyramidal, 3, 18
    retinal ganglion, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9-11,     9-10, 12, 13
    (see also retinal ganglion cell)
    simple, 17, 17-18, 20, 21
    stellate, 3
    tuned excitatory, near and far, 38
cell body, 2
cells     constellations of subserving perception,     59
    in striate cortex, responses of, 16-22
center-surround receptive fields     in area-18 thin stripes, 59
    in blobs of striate cortex, 47-48, 49
    in retinal ganglion cells, 9-11, 9,     10, 25
    significance of, 13
    in striate cortex, layer 2, 16
channels, membrane, 4
Chernenko, G., 57
chiasm, optic     and results of midline section, 34,     35, 39
    and retino-geniculate projections, 14, 15, 16
chloride ion, or Cl-, 4
cleft, synaptic, 4, 4
Cohen, Larry, 30
colliculus, superior, 23
color     blindness, 44
    in blobs, 47-49
    brown, 43
    classical theories of, 42-45
    compared with sound pitch, 41-42
    complementary, 42
    constancy, 45-46, 47
    desaturation, 43
    in evolution, 48-49
    in lateral geniculate, 46-47
    mixing of, 40, 42, 43, 43, 44
    need for three receptor types, 42
    physical aspects of, 40-41
    physiology of, 46-49
    primary, 40, 43, 44
    and retinal rivalry, 38
    rods and their lack of a role in, 42
    and color space, 48, 49
    and spatial variable, 45-46, 47
     in various species, 40
    in visual area 4, 59
    vision, 38-58
color constancy, 45-46, 47
color mixing, 40, 42, 43
color opponency     in area-18 thin stripes, 59
    in blobs, 48-49, 48
    in fish retina, 46
    in geniculate, 46-47, 46
columns     function of, 30
    ocular-dominance, 26-28
    (see also ocular-dominance columns)
    orientation, 2830
    (see also orientation columns)
    in somatosensory cortex, discovery by     Mountcastle, 28

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activating region, in end-stopped cells, 20, 20
acuity, visual     and ganglion-cell field size, 10-11
    and geniculate-cell field size, 47
    variation in, with distance from fovea,     10, 31
adaptation, in cortical simple and complex     cells, 18
aggregate receptive field, 31
alternating strabismus, as consequence of     squint, 54
amacrine cells, 4, 8, 9, 12, 13
amblyopia, 50, 54
amblyopia ex anopsia, as consequence of     squint, 54-55
angle subtended in visual field, 10
antagonism, between regions in receptive     fields, 17
architecture, of striate cortex, 23-24, 25-30
area 17     anatomy and architecture of, 14, 23    30, 31-33, 47
    definition of, 2, 3, 23, 24
    magnification in, 31-33
    modules in, 3133
    physiology of, 14-22, 47-49
    (see also cortex, primary visual)
area 18 (visual area 2), 23, 38, 58, 59
    and stereopsis, 38, 59
area MT, 59
area, total     of cerebral cortex, 23
    of striate cortex, 23
area, visual     2, or area 18, 3, 23, 38, 58-59
    4, 59
    MT, 3, 59
axes, coordinate, for color, 48, 49
axon, 2
    terminals, 3
axon transport     anatomical labelling by, 26
    of horseradish peroxidase, 26
    of radioactive amino acids, 26
    from retina to geniculate, 27
    transneuronal (from retina to cortex), 27
background light     in perception of black and white, 13
    in retinal stimulation, 9
Barlow, Horace, 18
Baylor, Dennis, 11, 58
Berlucchi, Giovanni, 35
Berman, Nancy, 57
binocular cells, and stereopsis, 3738
binocular convergence, neural, 22
binocular eye closure     effects on cortical physiology, 53
    effects on monkey lateral geniculate, 54
binocular synergism, 22
bipolar cell, 8, 11-12, 12
    connections with ganglion cells, 13
    physiology of, 12
black     perception of, and off-center cells, 9, 13
    versus white and gray, 13, 44
Blakemore, Colin     and stercopsis, 39
    and rearing with stripes of one orienta    tion, 57
Blasdel, Gary, 30
bleaching, of visual pigment, 11
blind spot, procedure for mapping, 24
blindness     in amblyopia, 50, 54-55
    local, from damage to visual path, 14
blobs, in striatc cortex, 47-49
body, lateral geniculate, 3, 6, 14,
    15-16, 23, 24, 46-47, 51, 57
    (see also lateral geniculate body)
brainstem, 2
broad-band cells     in blobs, 48
    in lateral geniculate (type 3), 46, 47
    in ventral geniculate layers (type 4), 47, 47
Brown, Paul, 43
brown (color), 43, 44
Cajal, Ramon y, Santiago, facing p. 2,     9
calcium ion, or Ca2+ 4
    role in synaptic transmission, 5
callosum, corpus, 34-35, 34
    (see also corpus callosum)
camera     eye versus, 8
    and photometers, 13
cataracts, 50


 
 
 
 
 
 
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